Phylicia Rashad talks self-empowerment at NCCU’s Rock the Mic

Phylicia Rashad talks self-empowerment at NCCU’s Rock the Mic

When the curtains opened at NCCU's B.N. Duke Auditorium, the crowd erupted into a standing ovation at the very sight of actress Phylicia Rashad.

When the curtains opened on the stage of N.C. Central University’s B.N. Duke Auditorium, the crowd erupted into a standing ovation at the very sight of actress Phylicia Rashad. As she grabbed the microphone, however, a deafening silence engulfed the room. Rashad’s presence brought on the full, undivided attention of the audience; the sound of papers shuffling and the fabric of people’s clothing could be heard with an uncanny clarity. The audience hung onto each and every word of wisdom Rashad had to offer.

Rashad spoke at NCCU on Nov. 10 as the second speaker in the 2017-2018 Rock the Mic lecture series prepared by NCCU’s Department of Student Engagement and Leadership. She is a renowned actress in television, film and theater and one of the many notable alumna of Howard University. She is best known for her theatrical work and iconic role as Clair Huxtable on “The Cosby Show.”

Rashad gave a speech on the importance of self-empowerment and advice to attendees during a Q&A following her onstage lecture.

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  • atanciu
    December 16, 2018, 2:16 pm

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  • otonciu
    December 18, 2018, 2:21 pm

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  • ontogu
    December 19, 2018, 2:18 pm

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    REPLY
    • tecedu@ontogu
      December 22, 2018, 2:20 pm

      another situations that implies women science are that so for mechanics and prof dr mircea orasanu consider these as followed in history and CORIOLIS FORCE and LAGRANGIAN NON HOLONOMIC and SCLERONOMOUS QUESTION in COLLEGE LYCEUM MAGNA ,and Louis university with most posters and read comments The goal is to apply Newton’s second law,

      , (6.1)

      to a parcel of air or ocean, so we need to assemble the most important forces. Since it is difficult to keep track of mass in observing the atmosphere and oceans, we write these equations in terms of the forces per unit mass, or accelerations, acting on parcels of air or ocean water according to:

      (6.2)

      Equations in the form of Eq. (6.2) are called “equations of motion”. In this chapter, we will identify and derive expressions for the most important forces to include in Eq. 6.2 – the forces that govern large-scale motion in the atmosphere and oceans.

      Coriolis force
      The Coriolis force is an "apparent force," arising because of the complicated frame of reference from which we observe the atmosphere. The laws of Newtonian physics are formulated in the absolute, or inertial, frame of reference, but we observe the atmosphere and oceans within a noninertial frame of reference rotating with the earth. The Coriolis force is defined and added to the equations of motion so Newton’s laws are applicable in the rotating frame of reference.
      Two different physical principles are involved in the definition of the Coriolis farce, namely, conservation of absolute angular momentum and centrifugal accelerations felt in the rotating frame.
      Conservation of absolute angular momentum. Consider a parcel of air or water with constant mass, m, moving with constant speed, v, in a circular orbit. According to Newton’s second law, the parcel must conserve absolute angular momentum (i.e., angular momentum in the absolute frame of reference). The magnitude of the absolute angular momentum is mvr, where v is the tangential velocity, and its direction is perpendicular to the plane of motion. The right-hand rule is applied for the sign convention, so for a parcel rotating counterclockwise, the angular momentum is directed out of the paper.
      Ground-based observations of motion in the atmosphere and oceans are taken within the rotating frame of reference, i.e., when we conduct these measurements we are not moving with respect to the earth’s surface. However, the motion of a parcel is constrained by conservation of angular momentum in the absolute frame of reference. For the observer in the rotating frame of reference, a parcel will seem to have forces acting on it when, in fact, there are no true forces acting on it and the parcel is simply conserving angular momentum in the absolute frame of reference. Part of the "Coriolis force" is an invention to make a parcel seem like it is obeying Newton’s second law when observed from the rotating frame of reference.
      Consider a parcel of air in the earth’s atmosphere, diagramed in Fig. 6.1. The size of the parcel as well as its distance about the earth’s surface are draw wildly out of scale. For a parcel in the troposphere, for example, z ~ 10 km << a = 6371 km. So it is reasonable to neglect the height of the parcel above the surface of the earth compared with the radius of the earth, and to make the “thin atmosphere approximation”

      . (6.3)

      In Figure 6.1, r is the moment arm, which is the distance from Earth’s axis of rotation to the parcel, and r = a cos   is the angular velocity of the earth,

       = 7.3 x 10-5 radians/sec. (6.4)
      The parcel does not have any meridional velocity relative to the earth’s surface. Define
      UABS = total east/west velocity of the parcel in the absolute frame of reference; the same as the tangential velocity in the angular momentum review above
      UROT = east/west velocity of the earth under the parcel = velocity of a parcel that is in solid body rotation with the earth. At the equator, UROT = 465 m/sec.
      u = velocity of parcel relative to the rotating earth (this the velocity one would observe from the earth’s surface)
      Then,
      UABS = UROT + u. (6.4)

      When visualized from the absolute frame of reference, the parcel is traveling in a circle of radius r. UROT is the component of that velocity equal to the tangential velocity of the earth’s surface, so

      . (6.5)

      Figure 6.1. A parcel with zonal velocity in the earth’s atmosphere.

      In climate dynamics, the concepts of Newtonian physics are applied to a parcel of air or water of unit mass, i.e., 1 kg. The absolute angular momentum for a parcel with unit mass is

      = constant. (6.6)

      According to the laws of physics, M is be conserved, i.e., M cannot change as the parcel moves around in the atmosphere or ocean. If a parcel moves to a higher latitude, , then cos  will decrease and u must increase. Thus, parcels moving meridionally within the atmosphere and ocean attain zonal velocities relative to the rotating earth.
      Is this an important factor to consider? Is it important for determining features of the general circulation? To evaluate its importance, consider a parcel of air that moves from the equator to 30N latitude due to some impulsive meridional force. At the equator, the parcel’s (initial) absolute angular momentum is

      . (6.7)

      Note how large this meridional velocity is compared with zonal velocities, u, observed in the earth’s troposphere (see Ch. 2). When the parcel reaches its final position at 30N, it must have the same absolute angular momentum because no force acted on the parcel in the zonal direction. Therefore,

      . (6.8)

      Solving Eq. 6.8 for the final zonal velocity of the parcel relative to the rotating earth at 30N,

      . (6.9)

      Again, this is a very large zonal velocity – larger than those observed. This indicates that the Coriolis force is an important factor determining atmospheric wind speeds. For an observer standing on the Earth’s surface at 30N, it looks as if the parcel was accelerated to the east as it approached from the south. However, in the absolute frame of reference, the parcel is simply moving in the meridional direction, and the observer at 30°N is simply moving slower than the observer on the equator for whom the parcel had no zonal velocity. The zonal component of the Coriolis force is formulated to capture this apparent east/west acceleration of the parcel as viewed from the rotating frame of reference.
      With this conceptual understanding, a mathematic expression for this component of the Coriolis force can be derived. The equation

      (6.10)

      expresses the principle of conservation of absolute angular momentumA consideration of some of the basic forces that drive and constrain motion in the atmosphere and oceans follows.
      . The material, or total, derivative is used to indicate that the derivative is taken “following the parcel”. This is the framework in which the laws of physics are formulated. For example, in applying F = ma to a block on an incline plane in a traditional physics application, we conceptually follow the block down the plane, considering the forces acting on the block at any instance.
      Substituting Eq. 6.6 into Eq. 6.10, carrying through the differentiation, and solving for du/dt results in a mathematical expression for the apparent acceleration (i.e., force per unit mass) that causes a parcel moving meridionally in the atmosphere to attain a zonal velocity as seen by the observer in the rotating frame of reference. To carry out the differentiation, note the following:
      •  = constant

      REPLY
      • suduciu@tecedu
        December 23, 2018, 10:40 am

        for a completed these domains are considered many and thus prof dr mircea orasanu and prof drd horia orasanu that followed in many sense as art and music and therefore Descartes shown as Cartesian Foundations
        • His own existence as a thinking being
        • God’s existence
        “reason does not dictate that what we see or imagine thus is true, but it does tell that all our ideas and notions must have some basis in truth, for it would not be possible that God, who is all perfect and true, should have put them in us unless it were so.”
        • God would not deceive us, therefore our faculties must be reliable.

        Hume “to have recourse to the veracity of the Supreme Being in order to prove the veracity of our senses is surely making a very unexpected circuit”.

        Legacy of Cartesian Rationalism

        Dualism: Descartes starting point was to discover the certainty of his own subjective mental life and his own existence as a ‘thinking thing’, this starting point created a set of dualisms that have affected the development of western philosophy: mind and body, idealism and materialism, and of subject and object.

        Descartes’ method of extending knowledge by deducing the consequences of principles and axioms that can be observed in experience (Mathematics, Economics)

        Belief that scientific theories can reach beyond empirical regularities to discover ‘necessary’ causal connections between observed events (Realism).

        John Locke – Empiricism as a naturalist epistemology

        Published An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689/90), friend of Robert Boyle and later of Isaac Newton, influenced by the inductive reasoning based on observation and experiment that he witnessed.

        His purpose was “to examine our own abilities and see what objects our understandings were or were not fitted to deal with”

        The basis for all knowledge must be grounded in experience. He starts by denying any innate ideas – all our ideas must be derived from experience, the mind at birth is like ‘white paper’.

        Since the mind, in all its thoughts and reasonings, hath no other immediate object but its own ideas, which it alone does or can contemplate, it is evident that our knowledge is only conversant about them.

        Reason has a role in manipulating and organising the ideas obtained from experience but adds nothing except judgement.

        Knowledge then seems to me to be nothing but the perception of the connexion and agreement, or disagreement and repugnancy, of any of our ideas. In this alone it consists. Where this perception is, there is knowledge; and where it is not, there, though we may fancy, guess, or believe, yet we always come short of knowledge. For when we know that white is not black, what do we else but perceive that these two ideas do not agree ?

        Empiricism and scepticism

        Locke – “mind perceives nothing but its own ideas” – the existence of a real world with real objects and real people in it is not given by our sensory experience alone.

        A persistent sceptic is able to show that empiricism cannot be a foundation for knowledge since it cannot convincingly demonstrate the existence of other minds or other bodies.

        Problem of induction and the meaning of general laws

        Induction – the process of reasoning that takes us from empirical observations to more general empirical conclusions (scientific laws)

        Hume pointed out that belief in induction appears to rest upon the unsupported and distinctly unempirical assumption that nature is uniform

        Science and knowledge
        17th Century Enlightenment

        advances in science and the principle that “nature is knowable through human experience” gave rise to a dominant empiricist, naturalist and materialist epistemology.

        Science as the basis for all knowledge claims and scientific language provides an objective point of view, the language of the world
        Objectivity
        Ontology

        Knowledge and Theory

        Scientific theory is invented to provide plausible explanations of observed regularities.

        Empiricists are sceptical about whether we can know if these theories are true or not – only that they are consistent with our experience.

        Rationalists and realists are more likely to argue that theories can be true

        Kant’s great attempt to unify empirical and rationalist epistemology was to stress that the categories we use to organise experience are not given in experience (time, space, external bodies, cause) therefore they must be furnished by the mind.
        Positivism as Epistemology

        1. We acquire our knowledge from our sensory experience of the world and our interaction with it (empiricism).
        2. Knowledge-claims are only possible about objects that can be observed (ontology).
        3. Any genuine knowledge-claim is testable by experience (through observation or experiment).
        4. Objectivity rests on a clear separation of testable (factual) statements from theory or values.
        5. Empirical science can and should be extended to the study of human mental and social life, to establish these disciplines as social sciences (positivism)
        6. Empirical science is valued as the highest or even the only genuine form of knowledge (scientism).

        Post Positivism: Popper – associated with the positivists of the Vienna Circle, he shared their hostility to metaphysics and enthusiasm for naturalism, but did not agree with their emphasis on meaning and verificationism

        His best known, and first, book Logik der Forschung was published in 1939, and it addresses the problem of induction

        Popper compelling puts the case that scientific theorising based on the inductive generalisation from observation of numerous cases is insupportable

        Instead he substitutes an epistemology based on falsification, that starts with imaginative hypothesising following by a rigorous testing of the hypothesis against the ‘tribunal of experience’ through experimentation – a hypothesis that survives the ordeal of falsification is corroborated but not proven

        Post positivism: WVO Quine – his most famous paper “Two dogmas of Empiricism” published in 1953, finally dismantled empiricist/rationalist foundations for knowledge.

        Quine argued that a single scientific statement or hypothesis cannot be tested against experience individually in an atomistic way:

        First, because there is no clear demarcation between theory statements and empirical statements

        Second, because we could retain any hypothesis, come what may, even if it did not appear to fit with our experience by making modifications elsewhere in our system of beliefs

        This view is sometimes called the holism thesis or the ‘web of belief’

        Post-Positivism: Thomas Kuhn – his seminal work ‘The Structure of Scientific Revolutions’ published in 1962

        He proposed the idea of normal science where the work within a particular scientific discipline was governed by a relatively stable and widely accepted set of theories and practices that he termed a paradigm.

        In time, internal inconsistencies between empirical observation data and the accepted theories in a paradigm become apparent and the established paradigm is overthrown and there is a period of competition and anarchy before a new paradigm is adopted.

        Kuhn accepted that the idea implied that change in science may not be rational – paradigm switches may be the result of political pHe also supported a thesis of incommensurability – that changes in scientific terminology and practices that follow a paradigm change mean that we cannot compare paradigms.

        REPLY
        • tosodu @suduciu
          January 16, 2019, 11:25 pm

          in many situations can observed as prof dr mircea orasanu and prof drd horia orasanu as followed so that Ahmed Cemal Eringen[1] (born February 15, 1921, in Kayseri, Turkey – December 7, 2009[8][9]) was a Turkish- American engineering scientist that must reconsidered in many aspects and also the same observations due to prof dr Cinstantin Udriste

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